Treatment depends on the symptoms and the severity of obstruction. Small stones are given an initial trial of conservative (medical) management, failing which the patient is advised ureteroscopic stone removal or a laser-based procedure to blast the stone.

Based on the size of the stones, either Extra-corporal Shock Wave Lithotrypsy (ESWL) or keyhole surgery (PCNL) is advised. Keyhole surgery has given good results in terms of minimal duration of hospital stay and early recovery.

BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) is a disease of aging. Though the symptoms are chronic (of long duration), they may be managed with drugs (medicines). In case the BPH does not respond to drugs or the symptoms score is high, patients are advised TURP (Trans-Urethral Resection of the Prostate). It is a scarless surgery as the prostate is operated on through a natural orifice. Therefore, early recovery is usually the norm.

Kidney tumours that are detected early may be managed with laparoscopic removal. Regular follow-up can ensure tumour-free survival and a good life expectancy.

Surgical correction is an option for the treatment of varicoceles and other correctable causes of male infertility.

Endoscopic surgery could help in the management of urethral strictures. Based on the magnitude of strictures, choices in reconstructive surgery too are available.

A social limitation with attendant emotional issues, urinary leaks can be treated through a combination of treatment modalities. Behavioural therapy and/or minimally invasive procedures could give satisfying outcomes.